Digitizing >> Container Structures (scores)

Container Structures

1. General Information

1.1 Purpose of Recording Container Structures

Navigation, Access to Content and a faithful Digital Representation of the Physical Item are the three main purposes for Variations score container structures.

The formatting rules outlined below are intended to assist digitizers in creating well organized, easily understood container structures in an efficient manner. Depending upon the item, the amount of information and number of access points may vary. Not every possible situation will be covered in this guide. On occasion, digitizers may have to make decisions based upon their own judgment or in consultation with others.

1.2 Overview of the Process and Sources of Information for Creating Container Structures

General Process

  • Work from the beginning to the end of a score
  • Digitize all required pages
  • Indicate the correct pagination (pages should be in sequential order)
  • Determine the page groupings and assign headings
  • Organize all headings in a hierarchical manner
  • Proofread after all page numbers and headings have been assigned and edited

Source of Information

The only source for score container structures will be the physical score itself. Digitizers may base structures first on table of contents entries and then on organizational elements within the score. It is suggested that for complex works (such as operas), digitizers consider both contents lists and internal organization when grouping pages and assigning headings. In general, pagination and entries in score container structure headings should be stated exactly as found on the physical object. Any exceptions will be covered elsewhere in this document (please note, this practice varies with those associated with sound recording structure entries, for with recordings, entries follow specified formatting rules that do not necessarily reflect the exact order of information presented on the original physical object).

Digitizers should keep in mind the fact that container structures are not reference sources and should not necessarily document all information available for each score, particularly if such information may be derived from other library services. The goal is to provide adequate access and navigation capabilities to library patrons in a quick and efficient manner.

1.3 Score Elements to Digitize

In an attempt to recreate the presentation and organization of the original physical object, the following score elements should be digitized: covers (when from the original publication) and all pages (including contents lists, multiple title pages, blank pages, title pages, advertisements, glossaries, indexes, critical reports, source descriptions, tipped in pages and part books). Do not include library binding end-papers and covers.

1.4 Copyright

Copyright statements are not specifically part of the container structure creation process. However, as this information is entered at the time container records and structures are created, some guidelines are presented here.

Establishing the correct copyright statement for published scores is somewhat tricky, so for now, do not include a copyright statement for scores (this section will be updated at a later time).

1.5 Language

Score headings and page grouping titles may be in languages other than, or in addition to, English. In such instances, create entries based upon the primary language found in the score itself. Headings and sectional indications (act, scene, etc.) should also be entered in the primary language.

Multiple Languages and Translations

If a work is well-known under the foreign language title, the addition of English translations is not necessary.

If a work title is relatively unknown and an English translation is available either from a contents list of within the score, this translation may be added after the title in the foreign language. In general, include translations only if deemed necessary, as they clutter up track and heading entries. Users may simply click on the desired page to see a digitized version of the page, so there is no need to represent the entire thing in the structure.

Occasionally, a contents list may be in one language whereas the entries in the actual score portion of the publication are printed in a different language (or in multiple languages). In such instances, determine whether the contents list or score entries will serve as the primary source of container structure information and make entries based upon that determination.

Entries in Cyrillic, Chinese, Korean, or Japanese

Several languages, such as Cyrillic, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, are not easily represented by keyboard characters. For Cyrillic entries, transliterate according to Library of Congress Transliteration Tables for Cyrillic Alphabets (or see the ALA-LC Romanization Tables). For Chinese, Korean, and Japanese entries, ask a supervisor to forward the materials to the campus CJK cataloging unit. If problems arise, contact a Technical Services specialist or bibliographer.

2. Pagination and Container Structure Information

2.1 Page Numbering

2.1A “Physical” Versus “Printed” Page Numbers in Variations

Each page has a unique “physical” page number indicating placement within a sequential ordering of several digitized pages.

Each page also has a “printed” page number. This number identifies the page number as printed on the physical item (or as determined by context).

When pages are mislabeled in the actual score (printing/compositor error), replicate the error in Variations “printed” page numbers. No attempt should be made to alter the printed pagination scheme. When Roman, Arabic, or alphabetical paginations are found in the physical item, replicate such numbers in Variations.

2.1B Assigning Printed Page Numbers

In most scores, the sequential ordering of pages is indicated through page numbers. This section deals with specifying printed page numbers for digitized scores in Variations.

Publishers often print some page numbers, but not necessarily on every page. Follow the rules in this section for pages with printed page numbers, but see section 2.1C below for information on how to deal with pages lacking page numbers.

2.1B1 Single Volume Scores

Enter all page numbers as printed in the score. For Roman numeral and letter sequences that may be either upper or lower-case, enter the characters as found in the score.

To label a range of pages:

  1. Select a range of pages (highlight the first page in the range, press and retain pressure on the Shift key, then select the last page in the range)
  2. Click the Label Pages button. A new window will open.
  3. Select one of the following number formats (if applicable):
    • Arabic (1, 2, 3)
    • Roman numerals, lower-case (i, ii, iii)
    • Roman numerals, upper-case (I, II, III)
    • Letters, lower-case (a, b, c)
    • Letters, upper-case (currently not available)
  4. Click OK. The Label Pages window will close
  5. Click Save in the lower right corner to save the assigned pagination
  6. If the page numbering format does not correspond to options in #3 above, digitizers should label individual pages.

To label individual pages:

  1. Highlight an individual page
  2. Enter the desired label in the Title field
  3. Click Next or press the Enter key
  4. Click Save in the lower right corner to save the assigned pagination

Most scores include both numbered and unnumbered pages. For information on how do deal with unnumbered pages, see section 2.1C below.

2.1B2 Multi-Volume Sets

If the pagination sequence is continuous among all volumes, enter numbers as printed and do not specify volume number.

If the pagination begins anew with each volume, enter the volume, followed by a colon and then the page number.

In the following example, all page numbers following the colon were printed in the score:

  • [vol. 4 - last page of music] ‘4:109
  • [vol. 5 - title page] ‘5:i
  • [vol. 5 - blank page] ‘5:ii
  • [vol. 5 - 1st page of music] ‘5:1

As stated in the previous section, most scores include both numbered and unnumbered pages. For information on how do deal with unnumbered pages, see section 2.1C below.

2.1B3 Special Pagination Issues

Score contains several works with two pagination schemes: one is continuous across all pages, the other begins anew with each new work

Explanation of Situation:

Example: a score contains several Schubert chamber works. The first two works in the score are both 14 pages long. The first page of the first work has the following page number indication: “(1) 1”. The first page of the second work has the following indication: “(15) 1”.

Suggested Pagination:

Label pages according to the continuous pagination scheme (in the example above, this scheme is represented by the numbers in parentheses) and ignore the numbers that begin anew with each new work

Score contains several works, but pagination begins anew with each new work (no continuous pagination is specified)

Explanation of Situation:

  • A single-score example: a score that contains ten Haydn string quartets and the first page of each quartet is “1”.
  • A multi-volume example: three volumes containing ten Haydn string quartets each and the first page of each quartet is “1”. (at IU, M452.H41 (miniature scores) is one such example)

Suggested Pagination:

  • For each volume, assign a capital letter to each work (the first work would be “A”, the second “B”, etc.)
  • When assigning page numbers, enter the work’s “letter” followed by page number (“A1” would represent the page numbered as “1” for the first work in the score)
  • If the page number is supplied by a digitizer and not printed in the score, enter both letter and page number in brackets ([A1])
  • When dealing with multi-volume sets, preface each page designation with the volume number and a colon (“1:A1” represents the first page (1st work) of the first volume, whereas “2:A1” represents the first page (1st work) of the second volume)

2.1C Pages Lacking Printed Page Numbers

All page numbers not printed in the score but assigned by catalogers should be entered within brackets (“[ ]”)

2.1C1 Single Volume Scores

1. All pages lack printed page numbers:

Assign lower-case Roman numerals to all preliminary pages and Arabic numerals to pages containing music. All page numbers should be entered in brackets (the first page of music would be ‘[1]’).

2. All pages before the musical text lack printed page numbers

If musical content begins on page “1”, all previous pages will be numbered with lower-case Roman numerals.

  • Title page ‘[i]
  • Publication/copyright notice ‘[ii]
  • Contents ‘[iii]
  • [blank page] ‘[iv]'
  • [1st page of music] ‘1

If musical text begins on a page other than “1”, pages directly before the first page will be assigned Arabic numerals.

  • Title page ‘[1]
  • Publication/copyright notice ‘[2]
  • Contents ‘[3]
  • [blank page] ‘[4]'
  • [1st page of music] ‘5

However, if the musical text begins on a page other than “1”, but pages are left over after assigning Arabic numbers to the pages directly preceding those with musical text, assign lower-case Roman numerals to the remaining pages.

  • Title page ‘[i]
  • Publication/copyright notice ‘[ii]
  • Contents ‘[1]
  • [blank page] ‘[2]'
  • [1st page of music] ‘3

3. Some pages before the musical text lack printed page numbers

In most cases, follow the rules described above.

If some of the preliminary pages are numbered with a complete series of Roman numerals, but pages remain at the beginning, assign lower case letters.

  • Title page ‘[a]
  • Publication/copyright notice ‘[b]
  • Contents ‘i
  • [blank page] ‘ii'
  • [1st page of music] ‘1

4. Pages within the musical text or body of the volume lack printed page numbers

Pagination should be determined by context, if possible. Example: If a piece ending on page 199 is followed by two blank pages, and then another work begins on page 202, the two inner pages would be pages ‘[200]’ and ‘[201]’. If inner pages do not fit into the pagination scheme, then assign capital letters.

5. Pages after the musical text lack printed page numbers

Continue the pagination sequence from the last numbered page

  • [last page of music] ‘398
  • [blank page] ‘[399]
  • Index ‘[400]’, [etc.]
2.1C2 Multi-volume sets

Combine the rules outlined in sections 2.1B2 (printed page numbers in multi-volume sets) and 2.1C1 (single volumes lacking page numbers) above.

  • [vol. 4 - last page of music] ‘[4:109]
  • [vol. 5 - title page] ‘[5:[i]]
  • [vol. 5 - [blank]] ‘[5:[ii]]
  • [vol. 5 - 1st page of music] ‘[5:1]

2.2 Page Order and Describing Non-Music Pages

2.2A Page Order within Container Structures

In Variations, each page will be represented in the order in which it appears in the physical item. Blank pages considered integral to a publication should also be included in the correct order.

2.2B Describing Preliminary Pages (and Any Other Non-Music Pages)

Scores often include pages that do not contain music. In this document, the phrase “preliminary pages” is used to describe such pages, even though these pages may be found before, between, or after pages containing musical text.

If pre- and post-music pages are not titled, select from the following terms and enclose the entry in brackets:

  • Acknowledgements
  • Advertisement(s)
  • Analysis
  • Appendix
  • Awards
  • Back cover
  • Blank
  • Characters [or] Character list
  • Commentary
  • Composer note
  • Contents [or] Content notes [or] Table of contents [or] Works list
  • Copyright Statement
  • Critical report
  • Dedication
  • Errata
  • Foreword
  • Front cover
  • Glossary
  • Half title page
  • Historical note
  • Illustration
  • Index
  • Instrumentation
  • Introduction
  • Music (only use if no composer is listed and it is not possible to identify the work)
  • Note(s)
  • Performance history
  • Performance instructions
  • Photograph
  • Poem
  • Portrait
  • Preface
  • Program notes
  • Publication notice
  • Series [or] Set title page
  • Source description
  • Table
  • Text
  • Textual quotation
  • Themes [or] Thematic table
  • Title page
  • Title page verso
  • Vocal text

In the case of a facsimile page, enter “Facsimile” before any of the terms listed above or in descriptive entries such as “Facsimile of original playbill.”

If two or more of the terms should be applied to one page, use commas or “and” to connect them.

If notes (and other types of descriptions) are in different languages, one may enter “[Notes in English]”, “[Notes in German]”, etc. Add additional terms to this list if deemed necessary.

2.3 Grouping Pages under Headings

2.3A Heading Definition

Headings are organizational nodes under which pages and other headings are grouped in score container structure hierarchies.

Individual pages do not appear in the Variations viewer container structure or in access pages associated with IUCAT records. However, if pages are grouped under headings, the headings will display in both the viewer and the access pages. Therefore, in order to optimize navigation in the viewer and access pages, each page or group of pages must be grouped under a heading.

Headings may describe (1) any preliminary or non-musical page(s), (2) the work or work section represented on the page(s) grouped under the heading, or (3) may serve an organizational purpose. Each type of heading will be described below in sections 2.3B-2.3D. Section 2.3E explains how to create headings for pages and other headings.

Whereas volume number indications do have an organizational purpose, such indications have more to do with the physical item than the works represented in the score and therefore are not considered headings in this document.

2.3B Headings for Preliminary and Non-Musical Pages

Preliminary and non-musical pages may include title pages, content lists, critical reports, blank pages, and other types of pages as listed above in section 2.2B. Assign headings to all such pages so that users may easily navigate to them if desired.

In most cases, only one description will be included in a heading. For example, if page “i” was a title page and page “ii” was labeled as “Contents”, page “i” would be grouped under one description (“[Title page]”) and page “ii” would have a separate heading (“Contents”).

In some instances, headings containing multiple descriptions are allowed for preliminary and non-musical pages. Situations in which multiple descriptions may be incorporated into one heading are as follows:

  1. One page contains multiple types of information. An example of this would be a page identifying both instrumentation and characters. The heading for this page would be “Instrumentation – Characters”.
  2. One page contains multiple types of information, but the last type carries on to subsequent pages. An example of this would be a page identifying instrumentation and a historical note, but the historical note continues on to the next page. In this instance, both pages would be grouped under one heading for “Instrumentation – Historical note.”
  3. Two pages consist of the title page and the opposite side of the title page (verso). If the opposite side contains no information (or very little that may be easily described), group both pages under the heading “[Title page & verso]”

Other issues related to preliminary and non-musical pages:

  • Use brackets for digitizer-supplied headings. If a page is labeled with something like “Contents”, do notenclose the heading entry in brackets.
  • If a page is blank, the heading should be “[Blank]”
  • These rules also apply to internal non-musical pages, as well as any located after the musical content.
  • For poems, digitizers may include author name, titles, or text incipits to assist in identification (ex: [Poem]: W. Blake, The Tyger).

2.3C Headings for Works and Work Sections

Work and work section headings should be derived from table of contents entries and/or organizational elements within the score. For language-related questions, please see the Languages section above.

In most instances, replicating information in the contents list will be sufficient. However, depending upon the work(s) and the amount of information detailed in the table of contents (when present), it may be preferable to derive work and work section headings from information presented within the score. If no table of contents is present, base headings upon entries within the score. It is suggested that for complex works (such as operas), digitizers consider both contents lists and internal organizational elements within the score when assigning headings.

Table of contents for scores containing several multi-movement works (sonatas, symphonies, string quartets, etc.) often simply list work titles and do not label or identify individual movement/section titles. In such instances, digitizers should look inside the score, identify individual movement/section titles and/or tempo indications, then group pages and create a heading for each movement/section. Following are some screenshots illustrating this situation:

Contents page example, with work titles but not movement titles

The partial image of a contents list above provides work titles which may be used as the basis for work headings. This list does not indicate that each work is comprised of several movements. Therefore, digitizers should look for internal divisions within the score.

When internal divisions are found, group pages and create headings as one would for the work title. If the internal divisions are clearly distinct movements, place Roman numerals before each movement title.

Work structure example, with pages grouped under movement title

2.3D Organizational Headings

**Under construction**

Treat Minuets or Scherzos coupled with a Trio as one movement. Place a space, double hyphens, space between the two entities (Minuet – Trio).

2.3E How to Group Pages and Create Headings

  1. Click on the desired page, highlight a range of pages, or select several headings.
  2. To select a range of pages or headings, highlight the first page/heading in the range, press and retain pressure on the Shift key, then select the last page/heading in the range.
  3. Click the Group Selected Button.
  4. In the Title field, enter a heading as based upon the rules detailed above.
  5. Click the Next button to save the new grouping/heading and to move on to the next entry.

For additional information, see section 2.4 below which provides a step-by-step explanation of how to create a container structure for one particular score.

Following is a screenshot of the digitizer tool demonstrating correctly labeled pages grouped under corresponding headings for one score:

Container structure example, with correctly-labeled pages

The same structure as it appears on the access page:

Access page example, with correctly-entered container structure

The same structure as it appears in the Variations viewer:

Viewer example, with correctly-entered container structure

2.4 Step-By-Step Example

This section provides step-by-step instructions on how to create the structure for one score. The selected score is a Dover publication of Schubert’s chamber music for strings (IU Music Library: M178.S39 M3). As this score contains one quintet, fifteen quartets, and two trios, it will serve as an example of how to deal with multiple heading levels.

Preliminary steps:

Digitize all required pages.

Look at the Save As section of the “Variations Scanning Scores” Sheet to see the type and number of pages to be dealt with in the structure.

For this example, the Save As section stated the following:

Score Pages Filename(s)
Title page adh1142-01-001
Contents adh1142-01-002
Score adh1142-01-003 --> 349

It is often more helpful to have physical object in hand rather than use the Variations viewer at this stage.

2.4A Assigning page numbers

Once a score has been digitized, the container structure in the digitizer tool should resemble the following image:

Container structure, as viewed in the digitizer tool
Preliminary Pages

The first and second pages in this list (adh1142-01-001-display.djvu and adh1142-01-002-display.djvu) represent a title page and contents list, both of which are unnumbered.

To add page numbers

1. Highlight the two entries (click on one, hold down the Shift key, and select the second page).

Step 1

2. Click the Label Pages button and a small window will open

Step 2

3. Since this is a single volume score, do not enter anything in the Prefix field

4. These two entries represent preliminary unnumbered pages. According to Variations pagination rules, lower-case Roman numerals should be used for such pages, so select “i, ii, iii” in the Style field

5. Enter “i” in the Starts With field (represents the first preliminary page)

6. Check the Brackets [ ] box because the pagination is supplied by the digitizer and is not printed in the score

7. Click OK

The container structure in digitizer tool interface will now look like this:

Container structure

8. Look through the rest of the score to see (1) if all pages have printed page numbers and (2) what the pagination scheme is. In this example, all other pages have printed numbers running from “1” to “347”.

Pages with Musical Text

9. For this example, all music pages were selected for labeling (highlight the entry for the first page of music, hold down the Shift key, scroll down to the last page of music and click on that entry). In this instance, the first page of music is labeled “(adh1142-01-003-display.djvu)” whereas the last page of music is “(adh1142-01-349-display.djvu)”.

10. Once all relevant pages are highlighted, click the Label Pages button.

11. Since this is a single volume score, do not enter anything in the Prefix field

12. As Arabic numbers are used for all printed pages numbers in this example, change the Style field entry to “1, 2, 3” and enter “1” in the Starts With field

Since all page numbers being assigned were printed, make sure the Brackets box is not checked.

Uncheck Brackets box

14. Press OK

The container structure in digitizer tool interface should now look like this:

Container structure

15. Scroll through the container structure entries to verify that each entry has been labeled with an appropriate page number. Fix any errors, either by selecting a range of pages and using the Label Pages button, or by altering individual page labels through the Title field. For information on altering pagination for individual pages, see section 2.1B1 above.

2.4B Grouping Pages under Headings

Preliminary Pages

It is often best to begin the container structure process by assigning headings to preliminary pages.

1. In this instance, begin with the title and contents pages.

2. Highlight the title page entry (“[i] (adh1142-01-001-display.djvu)”).

3. Click the Group Selected button.

Create a new grouping

4. In the Title field, enter the page title or description. As the words “Title page” are not actually on the title page, they should be entered within brackets.

5. Once the Title is entered, click the Next button.

6. Highlight the entry corresponding to the contents page and click the Group Selected button.

7. In the Title field, enter the page title or description. In this instance, the page does have “Contents” printed on the page so do not include brackets. Click the Next button when done.

The page should now look as follows:

Grouping under Contents
Pages with Musical Content

The item used as the basis for this example contains several works. When creating structures for such containers, it may be best to move from work to work

1. Identify and highlight all page numbers associated with the first work

2. Press the Group Selected button, and enter the work title in the title field. For this example, the title in the contents list was chosen over the title on the first page of music because it provided more information.

Grouping under Work title

Although the contents list merely provides the work title, this quintet is a multi-movement work. In order to provide greater access to users, it is best to look within the score for internal divisions and create additional groupings for each movement title.

1. The first movement runs from page 1 to 16. Highlight these pages and press the Group Selected button.

2. If a work appears to consist of clearly distinct movements, place Roman numerals before each movement title.

3. The table of contents does not include any information on movement titles, so this information must be derived from the music pages and entered in the Title field.

Grouping under movement title

4. Follow the same process for each movement.

5. Sometimes it helps to collapse completed movements to get a better sense of the structure. Unfortunately right now, every time any button is pressed, the structure expands.

6. Follow the process described above for each work. Periodically press the Save button to save completed work.

7. Because the printed contents list organized all quartets under a heading and did the same with the trios, the same was done in the container structure (eliminating the need to enter “for 2 Violins, Viola and Violoncello” over and over).

8. When completely done, save for one last time, then press the Viewer button in the lower left corner (the Viewer structure only displays information that has been saved) and verify that the container structure is correct. Once everything is done, click Save & Exit.

Completed container structure
Page Which Contains Both the End of One Movement/Work and the Beginning of Another

An interesting issue is associated with the second and third movement of this work, in that one ends and the other begins on the same page (in this instance, page 25).

In such cases, group the page in common with the latter movement (in this instance, the third movement), not the first. This allows the viewer link to navigate straight to the first page of the latter movement.

There is a problem with this practice, in that if someone wanted to print the second movement only, the last page would not print since it is grouped with the following movement. Catalogers may fix this problem, but it requires adding instantiations to the container and altering bindings. Contact a Variations cataloger for assistance.

3. Formatting

3.1 Diacritics

Diacritics should be incorporated whenever possible. An internal Diacritics Tool box has been developed to allow the incorporation of some such characters in specified fields of the digitizer interface.

Diacritics tool

Any diacritics not built into this interface may either be ignored or, if deemed necessary, be retrieved through the Windows Character Map. Do not enter spaces to take the place of diacritics.

Here is an explanation of how to use the Variations Diacritics Tool

3.2 Capitalization

Transcribe entries as found in the contents notes or within the score. However, if a title is printed in all capital letters, with the exception of internal prepositions and articles, only capitalize the first letter of each word.

3.3 Punctuation

For the most part, replicate punctuation as found in the contents list or within the score. The following examples primarily relate to additions/alterations made by digitizers.


In some instances, digitizers will need to add information not found in the physical item. Such information could include page numbers, descriptive page titles, page grouping titles, etc. Place information supplied by digitizers within brackets.

  • [iv]
  • [Advertisement]

Additions may be appended to further explain an entry. Enter such information within the bracket at the end of entries.

  • Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland [first version]

Double Hyphens

Use double hyphens to separate several distinct elements all entered in a single heading or page grouping title.

  • Sestetto: Alla bella Despinetta -- Recitativo: Che sussurro!

Use between different sections or tempo indications within a movement. If a movement contains one to three tempo/performance indications or sections, include the “titles” of all sections:

  • Adagio – Allegro – Adagio
  • Minuet – Trio

If a movement containers four or more tempo/performance indication or sections, only specify the first.

  • Adagio

One exception to this rule occurs in movements which begin with a brief introductory passage in one tempo, then the rest of the movement is in another tempo/other tempos. In such instances, indicate the first two tempos.

  • Adagio – Allegro

Equal Sign

Use to separate translations/versions of a title when (1) the main title is in an unfamiliar language or (2) if titles are relatively brief.

  • Vänskapens blomma = Friendship
  • Mai = May = Maj

3.4 Abbreviations

In general, do not add abbreviations not found in the source unless doing so clarifies or makes the entry more concise. For additional information on the following abbreviations, see the document outlining container structure rules for sound recordings.

  • acc. --“Accompaniment By”
  • arr.-- “Arranger” or “Arranged By”
  • c. -- “Century”
  • comp. --“Composer”
  • cont. --“Continued”
  • ed. --“Editor” or “Edited by”
  • lyr. --“Lyricist”
  • No. --“Number”
  • Op. --“Opus”
  • perf. --“Performer(s)”
  • Trad. --“Traditional”
  • transl. --“Translator”

4. Special Issues

4.1 Bibliographic Fields in the Digitizer Window

Several bibliographic fields appear on the left side of the digitizer tool. These fields do not just display in access pages, but are connected to the Variations database and in most instances are formatted according to specific rules (generally AACR2).

The question of whether digitizers may alter content in these fields varies and depends upon whether (1) the information in the field was imported from a bibliographic record or created anew by digitizers (as would be the case with personal reserve items) and (2) whether the digitizer can only interact with these fields in the digitizer tool or has administrative access to bibliographic information through other means.

4.1A Imported Information

Digitizers Using the Digitizer Tool

In general, digitizers should not alter content imported to the Item Title, Document Description, Publisher, and Notes fields. The Document Description and Publisher fields are grayed-out for most digitizers. If a digitizer believes something is wrong with any of these fields, he or she should contact a supervisor, digitizer with administrative access, or a Variations cataloger.

Digitizers may alter or add content to the Format, Copyright Statement, Location, Call Number, Copy Number, Viewable Comments and Availability fields as deemed necessary. The Availability field should be set at “Restricted access” unless told otherwise.

Digitizers with Administrative Access

Digitizers with Administrative Access have the ability to alter all fields listed above, as well as additional fields displaying in the upper portion of access pages. If changes are desired in the Item Title, Publisher (or Published/Produced), Notes, or Composer/Author fields, digitizers with administrative access should still forward requested changes to a Variations cataloger to ensure that content follows proper cataloging rules and formats.

Digitizers with Administrative Access may make the following changes without cataloger intervention:

Document Description field

The descriptive term before the first punctuation mark may be altered to follow current AACR2 practices for collective titles (AACR2 section 5.5B). Allowable terms include the following:

  • score
  • condensed score
  • close score
  • miniature score (use for scores reduced in size and not primarily intended for performance)
  • piano [violin, etc.] conductor part
  • vocal score
  • piano score
  • chorus score
  • part

Examples: "1 score"; "5 parts"

For special types of music, use an appropriate specific term (e.g., “choir book,” “table book”, etc.)

If the volume is a manuscript, precede the term by “ms.”

If changes should be made to the words or punctuation in the remainder of the entry, notify a Variations cataloger.

Copyright Statement field

Digitizers should not alter copyright statements through the cataloger interface, as for items cataloged in Variations, several different types of statements likely exist. Such statements will be formatted differently: instead of providing all copyright information in one statement, publisher, copyright date, and domain will be indicated in different fields.

Format, Location, Call Number, Copy Number, Viewable Comments, and Availability fields

Alter or add information as necessary.

4.1B Adding Information when Records Are Not Imported

For personal reserve and special collections items, digitizers may add content to the Item Title, Format, Publisher, Copyright Statement, Location, Call Number, Copy Number, Viewable Comments, and Availability fields.

Special rules exist for some fields:

Item Title

If the title is found on the item or is provided in supporting documentation, it may be entered as presented. If the title is created and supplied by digitization staff, the title should be placed within brackets.

Document Description

If the field is enabled, digitizers may designate the type of item being digitized (“sound disc”, etc.). However, if the field is not enabled or a more complete statement is required in this field, a Variations cataloger should be notified to correctly format the entry.


For personal reserves, create a note formatted as follows: “[individual’s full name]: personal collection” (i.e., “David Baker: personal collection”). Mark the note type as “Administrative.”

For special collection items, format the note as follows: “[collection name]: special collections” (i.e., “Radie Britain: special collections”). Mark the note type as “Administrative.”


For personal reserve items, select “Personal Collection”.

For special collections items housed in the IU music library, select “IU Music Library”.

Call Number

For personal reserve items, enter the course number, the name of the professor, and additional information such as numerical indications, semester, etc. (i.e., Z161 Prof. Ruiz-Oliver Personal Score #5).

For special collections, if a call number is provided, enter the number. If no call number is available, leave the field blank.

4.2 Reporting IUCAT and Variations Record Errors and Other Problems

Digitizers may discover errors such as misspellings, missing words, and incorrectly formatted information in IUCAT and Variations records that digitizers either do not have the ability to change or should not. Often the same error may found in both IUCAT and Variations. To ensure that the errors are fixed in both systems, report all such errors to a Variations cataloger. He or she will make changes to the Variations record and then forward the information on to one of the music library catalogers so that the IUCAT record may be changed.

For functionality and technical problems, contact Variations technical support staff through their online form.

4.3 “Fixing” Errors Printed in Scores

Contents lists and text associated with pages of music may include misspellings and missing words. Transcribe the entry as found on the primary source of information, but add the following:

Misspelled Words: directly after the misspelled word, enter the correct spelling within brackets (ex: Gianni Schichi [Schicchi]).

Missing Words: if words appear to be missing from titles or phrases and are necessary to properly identify an entry, include the missing word(s) within brackets (ex: La Fanciulla [del] West).

4.4 Digitizer Access to
Cataloged Containers

Information on how digitizers may access cataloged containers.

5. Access Page Examples

5.1 Opera

5.2 Songs

5.3 Chamber Music

  • VAA5438 (Mozart, Thirteen Early Quartets)
  • ADH1149 (Schubert, Chamber Music for Piano and Strings)
  • AEC6459 (Debussy, Sonatas)
  • BHQ9565 (Tchaikovsky, Piano Trio)

5.4 Orchestral Music

  • ADR4498 (Dvorak, Symphonies Nos. 8 and 9)
  • BAE6363 (Zwilich, Symphony No. 1)
  • AFS9443 (Prokofiev, Four Orchestral Works)
  • BGP2785 (Mozart, Symphony in D, K. 297)

5.5 Popular Music