This lesson covers the 2nd Aspect negative and the particle [i̲] which is an introductory particle for noun clauses following certain types of verbs.
A conversation between you and the gardener.
|Gat Kuɔth jï̲̩nwër, jiökni̲ Mu̲n i̲ ɤä̲n göörä puuhrän.
GatKuɔth , You go, tell Mu̲h that I want my hoe.
|Jɛn a jɛ. Cɛ jɛ ka̲̩n mëëpan kä̲ /ke̲nɛ iɛ lu̲ɔ̲hc ɤä̲.
It is with him. He took it yesterday but he did not return it to me.
|Kä̲ Mu̲n a ni̲ tä̲ä̲mɛ? Ɣä̲n kua̲cä̲ gua̲a̲thkɛ.
But Mu̲h Is where now? I don't know his place.
|Ɣɔ̲ɔ̲ ɛ jɛn, kui̲ci̲ gua̲a̲thdɛ u̲?
Of it is so, you don't know his place?
|Kä̲ dä̲maar, bä̲ ŋu̲ lɛl ŋɛ ɤöö ɤä̲n göörä̲ jɛ ni̲ ɛn tä̲ä̲mɛ pa̲̩ny?
But my brother what will I do because I want it right now really?
|ɤä̲n la̲tä̲ rɛy ji̲ne̲nä̲ kä̲ thïlɛ ɤä̲ pu̲u̲r.
I am working in the garden and I have no hoe.
|Tä̲ä̲ dɔ̲ɔ̲ Mu̲n a thï̲n thoo yiëër, bi̲ ɤä̲n ɤ wä̲ gui̲l.
Now maybe Mu̲h is present at the River's mouth, I will go and see him.
|Gɔaaɛ ɛlɔ̲ŋ, dä̲maar, kɛ yöö pu̲u̲r ɛmɔ göörä̲ jɛ ɛlɔŋ
It is very good, my brother because that hoe I want it very much,
|pa̲ny kä̲ lökä̲ jɛ kɛ ɤöö Mu̲n cɛ jɛ ka̲̩n kä̲ yke̲nɛ jɛ luɔ̲̩c ɤä̲.
really and I dislike it because Mu̲h took it and he has not returned it to me.
2nd Aspect Negative -- The 2nd Aspect has its own
negative particle [/ke̲n]. This particle can be conjugated with
the personal pronoun endings like a verb, or it can stand alone as [/ke̲n] with the subject directly following it.
Note: Western Nuer forms differ slightly.
2nd Aspect Negative
|Particle - Subject
|ɤä̲n /ka̲n bɛ̲n
|/Ke̲n ɤä̲n bɛ̲n
|Jï̲n /ke̲ni̲ bɛ̲n
|/Ke̲n jï̲n bɛ̲n
|Jɛn /ke̲nɛ be̲n
|/Ke̲n jɛn bɛ̲n
|Kɔn /ka̲nɛ bɛ̲n
|/Ke̲n kɔn bɛ̲n
|Kɔn /ka̲nkɔ bɛ̲n
|/Ke̲n nɛy bɛ̲n, or kɔn
|Yɛn /ka̲nɛ bɛ̲n
|/Ke̲n yɛn bɛ̲n
|Kɛn /ke̲nkɛ bɛ̲n
|/Ke̲n kɛn bɛ̲n
|Meaning: I did not come. etc.
The negative word order for verbs which take an object is the same as in the positive.
The Clausal Particle [i̲]
Think -- Cä̲ wi̲cdä̲ ca̲r i̲ ci̲ jiɛɛn. -- I thought that you had gone.
Hear -- Ci̲ ɤä̲n ɛ liŋ i̲ tëë kɛ jue̲̲y. -- I heard it that he is ill.
Know -- Ca̲kɔ jɛ ŋa̲c i̲ thïlɛ jɛ dä̲man. -- We knew it that he has no brother.
Doubt -- Ta̲a̲ kɛ diɛw i̲ thïlɛ kɛ mi̲th. -- I doubt that they have food.
Understand -- Cɛ wä̲ lɔɔcdä̲ i̲ ɛ jï̲n gua̲n. -- I understand that you are his father. Literally: It went into my heart that.
Believe -- ŋa̲a̲thä̲ jɛ pa̲ny i̲ Jidhɛth tëkɛ të̲ë̲mɛ. -- I really believe that Jesus lives now.
See (preceive) -- Cä̲ jɛ nɛn i̲ du̲ŋdɛ bɛcɛ. -- I perceived it that his hurts.
Tell -- Cɛ ɤä̲ jiök i̲ wër. -- He told me go. or he told me to go.
Say -- Ci̲ kɛn ɛ la̲r ɤä̲ i̲ bikɛ bɛ̲n i̲ru̲u̲n. -- They said it to me that they will come tomorrow.
To have an idea, suggestion, opinion -- Ɛ ruacdä̲ i̲ /cɛ gɔaa. -- To me this is no good.
To have an opinion, conviction, to give an ultimatum-- Ɛ ruacdä̲ i̲ /cɛ bi̲ wä̲. -- It's my talk that he will not go.
To have a conviction -- Ɛ lɔcdä̲ i̲ /ci̲ ɛ jɛn. -- As for as I'm concerned no.
|Nuer Field Project