<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"> <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Extra Lesson 4</TITLE> <link rel=stylesheet href="../../nuer.css" type="text/css"> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> <meta name="description" content="Nuer Field Notes Project: Nuer grammar"> </HEAD> <BODY> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"> <tr> <td colspan="7"><a href="../../index.html"><img src="../../images/nuerlogo.gif" alt="Nuer Field Project" border="0"></a> <br><br> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><a href="../../nouns.utx.html"><img src="../../images/nouns.gif" alt="Nouns" border="0"></a></td> <td><a href="../../verb.utx.html"><img src="../../images/verbs.gif" alt="Verbs" border="0"></a></td> <td><a href="../../verbbook.utx.html"><img src="../../images/verbbook.gif" alt="Verb Book" border="0"></a></td> <td><a href="../../expressions.utx.html"><img src="../../images/expressions.gif" alt="Expressions" border="0"></a></td> <td><a href="../"><img src="../../images/grammar.gif" alt="Pedagogical Grammar of Nuer" border="0"></a></td> <td><a href="../../bible/"><img src="../../images/genesis.gif" alt="Translation of Genesis in Nuer" border="0"></a></td> <td><a href="../../others.utx.html"><img src="../../images/others.gif" alt="Others" border="0"></a></td> </tr> </table> <h3>Extra Lesson 4</h3> <p>This lesson explains the temporal relative clause. It will be illustrated in series of drills in order to acquaint the learner with the word order with meanings of this clause.</p> <p>The Temporal Relative Pron. [in] indicates time occurring within a 12 hr. past limit. It is a definite pronoun indicating a <u>specific</u> antecedent and so translated by using the English word "the" (if the demonstrative is not in use) accompanying the antecedent. <p>The plural form of [in] is [tin].</p> <p>This clause occurs with 1st or 2nd aspects of the verb. Study its occurrences in the following sets of sentences. Have the informant read these sentences over six times, or until they become familiar to your ears. Mark mentally where the relative occurs.</p> <p><u>GROUP 1A</u> -- 1st ASPECT OF THE VERB (within the clause)</p> <ol> <li>Cih wuht <u>in diiht</u> bɛhn.</li> <li>Cih dhoohl <u>in tɛh puɔhnydɛ kɛ juehy</u> li̲h̲w mindaan.</li> <li>Cih raan <u>in buhm lɔcdɛ ɛtɛt</u> bɛhn ruac kɛ ɤäh.</li> <li>Cih wuht <u>in diiht nih jɛn</u> jiɛɛn.</li> <li>Cih dhoohl <u>in ruac</u> li̲h̲w.</li> </ol> <p><u>Note:</u> The verbs within the definite clause are <u>not</u> conjugated. <p><u>GROUP 2A</U> -- 2nd ASPECT OF THE VERB (within the clause).</p> <ol> <li>E jɛn ɤaan <u>in cih rɔw nähk mindaan.</u></li> <li>E jɛn raan <u>in cih bɛhn minwäähruhn.</u></li> <li>E jɛn ciɛhk <u>in cih gatdɛ duähc mindaan.</u></li> <li>E jɛn dhoohl <u>in cih ruac kɛ ɤäh.</u></li> <li>E jɛn ruɛc <u>in cih bɛhn minwäähruhn.</u></li> </ol> <p><u>Note:</u> The verbs within the relative clause are <u>not</u> conjugated.</p> <p><u>GROUP 1A</u> -- Translation (in time within 12 hrs. past)</p> <ol> <li>The big man came. Lit: The man who bigs came.</li> <li>The boy who had an illness died a little while ago.</li> <li>The person whose heart is defiant courageous came to talk with me.</li> <li>The biggest man left.</li> <li>The boy who talked (i.e. talking boy) died.</li> </ol> <p><u>GROUP 2A</u> -- Translation (in time within 12 hrs. past)</p> <ol> <li>That's the person who killed the hippo a little while ago.</li> <li>That's the person who came this morning.</li> <li>That's the woman who spanked her child a little while ago.</li> <li>That's the boy who talked with me.</li> <li>That's the talk which came this morning.</li> </ol> <p><u>GROUP 1B</u> -- 2nd Aspect of Verb (within the clause) indicating Past time.</p> <ol> <li>Noah ɛ jɛn wuhr <u>ëë cih kuoth ɛ nhɔk.</u></li> <li>Maar ɛ jɛn ram <u>ëë cih li̲h̲w mëëdan.</u></li> <li>Peter ɛ jɛn wuht <u>ēē cih Jesus jay mëëdan.</u></li> <li>Ruac ɛmɔ ɛ jɛn ruac <u>ēē cih bɛhn wanmɛ nih mēē cäŋēē.</u></li> <li>Duɔɔhr ɛmɛ ɛ jɛn duɔɔhr <u>ēē caa tɔhw wanɛmɛ ɛ guahrdɔŋ.</u></li> </ol> <p><u>GROUP 1B</u> -- Translation</p> <ol> <li>Noah he is the man who God loved.</li> <li>My mother she is the person who died quite a long time ago.</li> <li>Peter he is the man who denied Jesus.</li> <li>That talk it is the talk which came here the other day.</li> <li>This thing it is the thing which was stored here by my grandfather.</li> </ol> <p>Notice these 2 types of clauses which may occur: The one clause refers to an antecedent for its subject, the other clause contains its own subject. In English these constructions are identified solely by the word order, but in Nuer they are differentiated by the addition of the 3rd per. personal pronoun in the objective case. This pronoun refers back to the antecedent.</p> <p>The English would be: (Translate into Nuer.)</p> <ol type="a"> <li>This is the hippo which killed by my brother. <li>This is the hippo which my brother killed. </ol> <ol type="a"> <li>Noah is the man who loved God. <li>Noah is the man whom God loved. </ol> <ol type="a"> <li>He is the one who loves you. <li>He is the one whom you love. </ol> <ol type="a"> <li>That is the man who ate the croc. <li>That is the man whom the croc ate. </ol> <ol type="a"> <li>That is the man who will eat the croc. <li>That is the man whom the croc will eat. </ol> <p>The Nuer is expressed as follows: All &quot;a&quot; sentences are written, then the &quot;b&quot;s. Have the informant read them, first in order, and then mixed until your ears hear the difference. Then you say the Nuer.</p> <p>The subj. of the dependent clause is underlined.</p> <ol type="a"> <li>Nɛmɛ ɛ jɛn <u>rɔw</u> mih cih dühmaar nähk.</li> </ol> <ol type="a"> <li>Noah ɛ jɛn <u>wuht</u> ëë cih kuoth nhɔk.</li> </ol> <ol type="a"> <li>E jɛn <u>ram</u> mih nhɔk ih.</li> </ol> <ol type="a"> <li>E jɛn <u>buuht</u> mih cih nyaŋ cäm. </li> </ol> <ol type="a"> <li>E jɛn <u>wuht</u> mih bih nyaŋ cam. </li> </ol> <p>The subj. of the dependent clause is underlined. [ɛ] refers back to the antecedent the dir. obj. It is the 3rd sing. personal pron.</p> <ol type="a" start="2"> <li>Nɛmɛ ɛ jɛn rɔw mih cih <u>dähmaar</u> ɛ nähk.</li> </ol> <ol type="a" start="2"> <li>Noah ɛ jɛn wuht mih cih <u>kuoth</u> ɛ nhɔk.</li> </ol> <ol type="a" start="2"> <li>E jɛn ram mih nhɔk <u>jihn</u> ɛ (1st Asp.) or <br> mih cih <u>jihn</u> ɛ nhɔk. (2nd Asp.) </li> </ol> <ol type="a" start="2"> <li>Mɔmɔ ɛ jɛn wuht mih bih <u>nyaŋ</u> ɛ cam.</li> </ol> <ol type="a" start="2"> <li>Mɔmɔ ɛ jɛn <u>wuht</u> mih bih nyaŋ ɛ cam. </li> </ol> <table border="0" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="5"> <tr bgcolor="#d3d3d3"> <td><a href="../../index.html">Nuer Field Project</a></td> <td><a href="../../nouns.utx.html">Nouns</a></td> <td><a href="../../verb.utx.html">Verbs</a></td> <td><a href="../../verbbook.utx.html">Verb Book</a></td> <td><a href="../../expressions.utx.html">Expressions</a></td> <td><a href="../">Grammar</a></td> <td><a href="../../bible/">Genesis</a></td> <td><a href="../../others.utx.html">Others</a></td> </tr> </table> <p class="footer">Last updated: 29 August 2003<br> Collection by: <a href="http://www.libraries.iub.edu/index.php?pageId=322">IU Libraries African Studies Collection</a> in collaboration with the <a href='/'>IU Digital Library Program</a><br> Comments: mfrankwi@indiana.edu<br> <a href="http://www.indiana.edu/copyright.html">Copyright</a> 2003, The Trustees of <a href="http://www.indiana.edu">Indiana University</a></p> </body></html>